数据与计算发展前沿 ›› 2021, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (3): 86-94.doi: 10.11871/jfdc.issn.2096-742X.2021.03.008

• 网络通信与安全专刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

区块链的共识机制研究

翟冉1,2,3(),陈学斌1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1.华北理工大学理学院,河北 唐山 063210
    2.河北省数据科学与应用重点实验室(华北理工大学),河北 唐山 063210
    3.唐山市数据科学重点实验室(华北理工大学),河北 唐山 063210
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-24 出版日期:2021-06-20 发布日期:2021-07-09
  • 通讯作者: 陈学斌
  • 作者简介:翟冉,华北理工大学,硕士研究生,CCF会员,主要研究方向为网络安全。
    本文中负责内容的撰写。
    ZHAI Ran is a master student of North China University of technology. She is a member of CCF. Her main research interest includes network security.
    In this paper,she is responsible for writing the content.
    E-mail: zhairan1@qq.com|陈学斌,华北理工大学,教授,博士,CCF杰出会员,主要研究方向为大数据安全、物联网安全、网络安全等。
    本文中负责整体指导。
    CHEN Xuebin, Ph.D., is a professor of North China University of science and technology and an outstanding member of CCF. His main research interests include big data security, Internet of things security, network security, etc.
    In this paper,he is responsible for the overall guidance.
    E-mail: chxb@qq.com

Research on Blockchain Consensus Mechanism

ZHAI Ran1,2,3(),CHEN Xuebin1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1. College School of Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China
    2. Hebei Province Key Laboratory of Data Science and Application(North China University of Science and Technology), Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China
    3. Tangshan Data Science Laboratory(North China University of Science and Technology), Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China
  • Received:2021-02-24 Online:2021-06-20 Published:2021-07-09
  • Contact: CHEN Xuebin

摘要:

【目的】 为了更好地解决区块链点对点的通信过程中账本一致性问题。【文献范围】 主要从知网、ACM、CCS等参考了四十余篇研究区块链、智能合约技术以及各种共识机制的文献。【方法】 分析比较了较常见的共识算法的优缺点,进而说明了各种共识机制的应用场景,介绍了共识机制最新的研究成果并进行了比较。【结果】 可见每种共识机制都有自己的优缺点,不同的共识机制应当应用于不同的场景才能发挥最大的作用。【局限】 本文篇幅有限,未能对具体共识机制技术进行更完善的介绍。【结论】 我们可以针对各种共识机制的缺点进行改进设计出更完善的共识机制。

关键词: 区块链, 共识机制, 智能合约

Abstract:

[Objective] Blockchain consensus mechanism is the key technology to solve the account books consistency problem in the process of point-to-point communication in blockchain.[Coverage] More than 40 related literatures from CNKI, ACM, CCS, etc. on blockchain, smart contract technology and various consensus mechanisms are referred. [Methods] This paper divides consensus mechanisms into two categories: proof consensus mechanism and Byzantine consensus mechanism. This paper first introduces five consensus algorithms: POW, POS, DPOS, POA and PBFT consensus algorithm, and then analyzes and compares their advantages and disadvantages. Aiming at reducing the defects of various consensus algorithms, two improved consensus algorithms are introduced, including honey badger algorithm and little flying elephant negotiation algorithm. [Results] Each consensus mechanism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Different consensus mechanisms should be applied to different scenarios to play their roles. [Limitations] Due to the limited space, this paper is not able to give a detailed introduction to a specific consensus mechanism technology. [Conclusions] Each different consensus mechanism has its own shortcomings. Thus, we can improve consensus mechanisms by reducing their shortcomings.

Key words: blockchain, consensus mechanism, smart contract