数据与计算发展前沿 ›› 2019, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 2-10.doi: 10.11871/jfdc.issn.2096.742X.2019.01.002

所属专题: “数据与计算平台”专刊

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数据与计算平台是驱动当代科学研究发展的重要基础设施

廖方宇1,洪学海1,2,汪洋1,褚大伟3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院计算机网络信息中心 北京 100190
    2. 中国科学院计算技术研究所 北京100190
    3. 中国科学院 北京 100864
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-15 出版日期:2019-12-09 发布日期:2019-10-09
  • 作者简介:廖方宇,1962年生,中国科学院网信领导小组成员、计算机网络信息中心主任,研究员,国际科学数据委员会中国委员会副主席、中国计算机学会计算机安全专业委员会副主任委员等。负责中国科学院“数据与计算平台”中长期发展战略规划等,兼任国家发改委“大数据分析与计算技术国家地方联合工程实验室”主任、中国科学院计算科学应用研究中心理事长等。曾获国家科技进步一等奖、北京市科技进步二等奖。
    Liao Fangyu, born in 1962. He is member of the leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He is the professor and the director of Computer Network Information Center, CAS. He is also the vice chairman of Professional Committee of Computer Security of China Computer Federation, vice Chairman of the China Committee of Committee on Data of the International Science Council, the director of National joint engineering laboratory of Big Data Analysis and Computing of NDRC and the chairman of Center of Scientific Computing Applications & Research, CAS. He takes charge of long term plan “Data and Computing Platform” of CAS. He has won the first prize of national science and technology progress, and the second prize of Beijing science and technology progress. E-mail: fyliao@cnic.cn|洪学海,1967年生,博士,中国科学院计算技术研究所和计算机网络信息中心研究员,博士生导师。现任中国科学院计算技术研究所信息技术战略研究中心常务副主任。研究方向为高性能计算与云计算、信息服务计算与大数据、信息技术与信息化发展战略研究等。先后承担国家自然科学基金、国家重点研发计划、国家重大科技专项(03专项)、智慧中科院等各类课题30余项,发表论文70余篇(部),获省部级科技进步奖三次。
    Hong Xuehai, born in 1967, PhD, Professor and doctoral supervisor of Institute of Computing Technology and Computer Network Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is currently the Deputy Director of Information Technology Strategic Research Center, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Research directions are high performance computing and cloud computing, information service computing and big data, information technology and information technology development strategy research. He has successively undertaken more than 30 projects from National Natural Science Foundation, the National Key R&D Program, the National Major Science and Technology Project (03 projects), the Chinese Academy of Wisdom Sciences and other subjects. He also has published more than 70 papers (ministries), and won three provincial and ministerial prizes for scientific and technological progress. E-mail:hxh@cnic.cn|汪洋,1984年生,博士,中国科学院计算机网络信息中心信息化发展战略与评估中心主任。专业方向为信息化发展战略研究、大数据分析、态势感知系统。先后主持、参与了中科院信息化专项、烟草大数据重大专项等科研项目以及国家信息化专家咨询委、中国互联网发展基金会、中科院学部咨询等软课题10余项,参与《中国科学院“十三五”信息化发展规划》、中国科学院“数据与计算平台”规划、“国家科研信息化发展战略研究”等规划、报告编制工作;在SCI/EI、中文核心等刊物上发表学术论文20余篇。
    Wang Yang, born in 1984, PhD, head of Center of Information Strategy and Evaluation, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His major research areas are big data analysis, situational awareness system and strategy research on e-Science. He has presided and participated in the more than 10 projects from Informatization Plan of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tobacco Research Data, Advisory Committee for State Informatization, China Internet Development Foundation, and Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has published more than 20 academic papers in SCI/EI and Chinese journals. E-mail:wangyang@cnic.cn|褚大伟,1979年生,中国科学院办公厅,主要工作方向为科研信息化、网络安全、信息化发展战略规划和研究,负责组织中国科学院十二五、十三五信息化发展规划、“数据与计算平台”规划,参与多项中国科学院学部咨询评议项目、国家信息化专家委咨询课题。2012 年获山东大学计算机应用专业硕士学位,现于中国科学院大学网络空间安全学院攻读博士学位。主要研究方向:科研信息化发展战略、网络安全与 PKI、统一身份认证等,在ESORICS、SECURECOMM、IEEE GLOBECOM等顶级国际会议发表多篇学术论文。《中国科研信息化蓝皮书》编委。
    Chu Dawei, born in 1979, he received a Master’s degree of Shandong University in June 2012 and now pursuing his doctoral degree in University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. His major research areas are e-science, cyber security, planning and implementing the Informatization Development Plan of CAS. In these years, he has published multiple papers on ESORICS, SECURECOMM, IEEE GLOBECOM and other international top conferences. He is also the Chairmen of editorial board of China’s e-Science Blue Book. E-mail: dwchu@cashq.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略研究与决策支持系统建设专项项目“数据与计算平台——重大创新领域战略规划研究”(GHJ-ZLZX-2018-10);中国科学院战略研究与决策支持系统建设专项项目“数据与计算平台——重大创新领域战略规划研究”(GHJ-ZLZX-2019-10)

The Data and Computing Platform Is An Important Infrastructure Which Drives Modern Scientific Research Development

Fangyu Liao1,Xuehai Hong1,2,Yang Wang1,Dawei Chu3   

  1. 1. r Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    2.Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    3.Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China
  • Received:2019-08-15 Online:2019-12-09 Published:2019-10-09

摘要:

【目的】为表明数据与计算平台在科学研究活动中的重要驱动作用,本文研究了数据、计算以及科学研究的发展与本质。【方法】本文简述了数据技术和计算技术的发展,通过拓扑材料计算、计算化学、引力波发现、黑洞成像和半监督学习图像识别等典型案例,表明了在各领域科研活动中,数据与计算平台极大地拓展了科学研究的深度和广度,为当代科学研究提供了新的手段与方法。【结果】本文认为摩尔定律的驱动、大数据爆炸式的增长以及人工智能的再次蓬勃发展,都和数据与计算技术的发展呈现密不可分的关系。【结论】以大数据、人工智能技术为代表的数据与计算平台将作为科学研究一种独立、不可或缺的投入要素,融入科学研究活动的全过程,数据与计算平台将成为世界各国驱动现代科学研究发展的重要基础设施。

关键词: 数据与计算平台, 数据技术, 计算技术, 人工智能

Abstract:

[Objective] To demonstrate the important driving role of data and computing in scientific research, this paper studies the development and essence of data, computing, and scientific research. [Methods] This paper expounds the essence of data technology and computing technology. Several typical cases are used to illustrate that data and computing, viewed as one of the keys to scientific activities, greatly expand the depth and breadth of scientific and technological innovation research. [Results] Data are quantitative or qualitative records of natural, social phenomena and scientific experiments, which is the important for scientific research. The technology of data refers to a series of scientific and technological activities such as collecting, classifying, transporting, storing, analyzing and visualizing data. Its goal is to turn data into information, knowledge and pattern for human beings to understand the natural world and human society. Since the invention of von Neumann computer, the rapid development of computing technology driven by Moore's law has made the research and application of data technology and artificial intelligence more active. The collaborative progress of data technology, artificial intelligence and computing technology has brought about a leap forward in human understanding of natural and social knowledge and pattern. [Conclusions] Therefore, data technology, computing technology and artificial intelligence provide the most basic technology platform for building the "digital twin" body of the "human-machine-object" ternary fusion. Advanced data and computing technology, represented by big data and artificial intelligence technology, will integrate theory, experiment and simulation, and form a new scientific research paradigm. In the development process of scientific research in the past thousand years, human, capital, tools (scientific instruments) and methods (theories) have become the necessary input elements of scientific research. In the past decades, computer has aided scientists to carry out a lot of calculation work. It becomes a type of tools of the input elements. However, with the rapid development of data and computing technology, data and computing technology not only plays an auxiliary and supporting role in scientific research, but also can rely on the logical method of themselves to carry out scientific research in the "digital twin" body of "human-machine-object" three-dimensional integration. Therefore, data and computing technology will be regard as a new and indispensable input elements of scientific research.

Key words: data technology, computing technology, artificial intelligence, scientific research paradigm