Frontiers of Data and Computing ›› 2019, Vol. 1 ›› Issue (1): 2-10.doi: 10.11871/jfdc.issn.2096.742X.2019.01.002

Special Issue: “数据与计算平台”专刊

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The Data and Computing Platform Is An Important Infrastructure Which Drives Modern Scientific Research Development

Fangyu Liao1,Xuehai Hong1,2,Yang Wang1,Dawei Chu3   

  1. 1. r Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    2.Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    3.Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China
  • Received:2019-08-15 Online:2019-12-09 Published:2019-10-09

Abstract:

[Objective] To demonstrate the important driving role of data and computing in scientific research, this paper studies the development and essence of data, computing, and scientific research. [Methods] This paper expounds the essence of data technology and computing technology. Several typical cases are used to illustrate that data and computing, viewed as one of the keys to scientific activities, greatly expand the depth and breadth of scientific and technological innovation research. [Results] Data are quantitative or qualitative records of natural, social phenomena and scientific experiments, which is the important for scientific research. The technology of data refers to a series of scientific and technological activities such as collecting, classifying, transporting, storing, analyzing and visualizing data. Its goal is to turn data into information, knowledge and pattern for human beings to understand the natural world and human society. Since the invention of von Neumann computer, the rapid development of computing technology driven by Moore's law has made the research and application of data technology and artificial intelligence more active. The collaborative progress of data technology, artificial intelligence and computing technology has brought about a leap forward in human understanding of natural and social knowledge and pattern. [Conclusions] Therefore, data technology, computing technology and artificial intelligence provide the most basic technology platform for building the "digital twin" body of the "human-machine-object" ternary fusion. Advanced data and computing technology, represented by big data and artificial intelligence technology, will integrate theory, experiment and simulation, and form a new scientific research paradigm. In the development process of scientific research in the past thousand years, human, capital, tools (scientific instruments) and methods (theories) have become the necessary input elements of scientific research. In the past decades, computer has aided scientists to carry out a lot of calculation work. It becomes a type of tools of the input elements. However, with the rapid development of data and computing technology, data and computing technology not only plays an auxiliary and supporting role in scientific research, but also can rely on the logical method of themselves to carry out scientific research in the "digital twin" body of "human-machine-object" three-dimensional integration. Therefore, data and computing technology will be regard as a new and indispensable input elements of scientific research.

Key words: data technology, computing technology, artificial intelligence, scientific research paradigm